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2017: Some big anniversaries A lot of anniversaries to
remember this year…and so
from page 1 2017 marks some important waltz has gone on to become one many of them still crucial to zation against Germany, offered
understanding the world in Mexico a chance to recover terri-
grants to many locales in New sesquicentennials for Austria. In of Austria’s unofficial national tory in Texas, Arizona and New
York State and points west. 1867, Johann Strauss II premiered which we live! Mexico lost to the United States
An den schönen blauen Donau anthems. 2017 is also the 150th during the Mexican War. Conse-
its allies. This coded memo from quently, 2017 is also the centenary
anniversary of Austria’s Ausgleich the German Foreign Secretary, Ar- of U.S. military involvement in
thur Zimmermann, to the German World War I, an involvement that
(Blue Danube) in Vienna. The of 1867, which led to one of the ambassador to Mexico proposed a ultimately played a major role in
German alliance with Mexico if the defeat of Germany and its al-
most unique political experiments the United States were to go to war lies.
with Germany after the resumption
in modern European history. The of unrestricted submarine warfare A lot of anniversaries to re-
in the Atlantic. member this year…and so many
Ausgleich formally transformed of them still crucial to understand-
The plan, designed mainly to ing the world in which we live!
the Austrian Empire into a dual snarl up any possible U.S. mobili-

monarchy, the Austro-Hungarian

Empire, which lasted until 1919.

In 2017 we commemorate the

C:\Users\Ro...\2.BMP 150th anniversary of the creation

of the North German Confedera-

tion, created after Prussia defeated

Austria in the Austro-Prussian

War of 1866. The North German

Confederation was an important

step toward German Unification

(the Second Reich) in 1871.

In 2017 Canada celebrates the

150th anniversary of the Domin-

ion of Canada, which was an im-

portant destination for

German-speaking immigrants.

Karl Marx’s Das Kapital was

first published 150 years ago in

1867…which brings us to 1917

and the Bolshevik Revolution in

Russia. There was a German con-

nection besides Marx. The major

figure in the Russian Revolution’s

success was Vladimir Ilyich

Lenin. Lenin had been exiled from

Russia for earlier communist rev-

olutionary activity and had been

living in Zürich.

4 • • April - May 2017 Arthur Zimmermann

Because Imperial Germany
and Imperial Russia were enemies
in World War I – and everyone
had already been into high-risk
covert diplomacy anyway – Ger-
many allowed Lenin and several
of his communist co-revolutionar-
ies safe passage through German
territory into Russia. Berlin hoped
that Lenin and company would stir
up enough trouble for Tsar Nicho-
las II that Russia would be forced
to quit the war. Mission accom-
plished! Little did Germany real-
ize, however, that its assistance to
Lenin in 1917 would come back to
bite in 1945.

2017 is also the 100th anniver-
sary of the Zimmermann Tele-
gram that played a major role in
getting the United States to join
World War I against Germany and
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